Document type: DU ETD
Collection: Geology Theses  
Title The Influence of Territorial Shape On Municipal Expenditures: England And Wales
Author(s) Hampson, Arthur
Advisor(s) Herold, Lawrence C.
School/Department Department of English
Institution University of Denver
Degree Type Master's
Degree Name M.A.
Type of Resource text
Degree Date 1971-6
Digital Origin reformatted digital
Rights Statement All Rights Reserved
Reason for Restrictions No restrictions
Type of Restriction No restrictions
Keyword(s) Geology
Abstract It is a basic assumption that cost of transpor¬tation is directly related to distance travelled. Assuming a focus for distribution of goods and services, then, it logically follows that a circle whose center coincides with that focus is the most efficient shape for a service area. It was therefore hypothesized that urban centers which are compact (e.g. circular) in shape will spend less per capita on certain services than urban centers which are not compact. Using a quantitative index of circularity, sixty county boroughs in England and Wales were subjected to simple correlation between shape and nine categories of municipal expenditure. In addition, the explanatory power of shape was compared to that of six traditionally accepted explainers of municipal expenditure variation (1) population, (2) population change: 1951-1961, (3) area, (4) population density, (5) per capita yield from rates, and (6) the percentage of county borough income from both rates and central government grants which was derived just from rates. Both simple and multiple correlation techniques were used to make the comparison. Shape showed a statistically significant correlation with only two categories of municipal expenditure—education and parks. The correlation with education was a positive one, negating the original hypothesis. It was concluded that shape is not an important determinant of per capita municipal expenditure variations. This does not contra¬dict the "friction of distance" concept, but it does question its relevance in an urban area. In spite of this, shape appeared to be no less influential than most of the independent variables commonly used in studies dealing with municipal spending.
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